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Outline of the classification of European Russula according to Sarnari (1998, Monografia...)

Subgenus Compacta (Fr.) Bon

Section Archaeinae R. Heim ex Buyck & Sarnari

Section Compactae Fr.

Section Lactarioides (Bataille) Konr. & Joss.

Subgenus Heterophyllidia Romagn.

Section Griseoflaccidae Sarnari ad int.

Section Heterophyllae Fr.

Subsections: Cyanoxanthinae Singer, Griseinae Jul. Schäff., Heterophyllae (Fr.) Jul. Schäff., Ilicinae (Romagn.) Buyck, Virescentinae (Singer) Sarnari

Subgenus Amoenula Sarnari

Cap and sometimes also stipe ranging from red to purple or violet, green, brownish or yellow, velutinous, with subulate extremities in pellis. Vacuolar red pigment present. Taste mild. Typical macroystidia, dermatocystidia and lactifers absent.
Type : R. amoena

No further subdivision

Subgenus Ingratula Romagn.

Section Felleinae (Melzer & Zvára) Sarnari

Section Ingratae (Quél.) Maire

Subsections: Farinipedes Singer, Foetentinae (Melzer & Zvára) Singer

Section Subvelatae Singer

Subgenus Russula Romagn. emend.

Rest group largely defined by exclusion of other subgenera. Very variable in general habit, taste and pigmentation. Spores with amyloid suprahilar spot. Dermatocystidia (except in Auratinae), uni- to multiseptate, incrusted or not, primordial hyphae rare.
Type : R.emetica.

Section Messapicae Sarnari

Section Paraincrustatae Sarnari

Subsections: Integrae (Maire) Sarnari, Lepidinae (Melzer & Zvára) Singer

Section Polychromae (Maire) Sarnari

Subsections: Auratinae Bon, Integriforminae (Bon) Sarnari, Melliolentinae (Singer) Sarnari, Paraintegrinae Sarnari, Xerampelinae Singer

Section Russula (Romagn.) Sarnari

Subsections: Consobrinae Sarnari, Rubrinae (Melzer & Zvára) Singer, Russula (Romagn.) Sarnari, Sardoninae (Singer) Sarnari, Urentes Maire, Violaceinae (Romagn.) Sarnari

Section Tenellae Quél.

Subsections: Betulinae (Romagn.) Sarnari, Laricinae (Romagn.) Bon, Puellarinae Singer, Rhodellinae (Romagn.) Bon, Viscidinae (Sarnari) Sarnari

Subgenus Incrustatula Romagn. emend.

Section Amethystinae (Romagn.) Sarnari

Subsections: Amethystinae (Romagn.) Bon, Chamaeleontinae Singer, Integroidinae Romagn. in Bon, Olivaceinae Singer

Section Lilaceinae (Melzer & Zvára) Konr. & Joss.

Subsections: Lilaceinae (Melzer & Zvára) Jul. Schäff., Roseinae Singer ex Sarnari


This classification of Sarnari (1998) is the most recent revision of the genus and also the first to include a large number of Mediterranean, previously unknown species. In this respect it brings an important addition, but the great outlines of the work of Romagnesi remain. Sarnari's classification differs principally in interpretation or appreciation of the same characters and more generally by the attribution of a greater weight to microscopic features, whereas field characters are interpreted much more sceptically. The transfer of Integroidinae from Polychromidia to Incrustatula is one example, the exclusion of Singer's subsection Amoeninae from Heterophyllidia is based on the important microscopical hiatus with the other species. Subgenus Incrustatula is emended by adding two groups of Romagnesi's subgenus Polychromidia based on the interpretation that some species have "non-encrusted primoridial hyphae" and by adding more weigth to the presence of primordial hyphae.
Subgenus Russula has become a rest group for those species lacking the distinctive features of the other subgenera. Inside subgenus Russula, the lesser weight attributed to field characters such as taste or general colour is very evident and resulted in reduction of several subsections to 'series' or 'tribes' and of some of Romagnesi's subgenera to sections.